Physicochemical and marker based optimization of fermentation process of Drakshasava, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation
Drakshasava a classical herbal formulation containing Vitis vinifera L. (grapes) as a chief ingredient. It is one of the best asava preparation, referred in Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI). The present study explores the changes brought by fermentation during the processing of Drakshasava with respect to physicochemical parameters using correlation marker based approach. The grapes were extracted to form decoction and further fermented with Woodfordia flowers along with prakshepadravyas (additional drugs in small quantity) and sugar source, as per AFI, part II. The fermented broth was analyzed daily for 14 days for various physicochemical parameters. Further marker based profiling was done by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) with respect to caffeic acid and kaempferol. The fermentation took 3 days lag period for generation of quantifiable alcohol (0.5%) on 4th day to 16.7% on 14th day. The admissible limit of alcohol for Drakshasava as per API (5-10%) has been reached on 9th day itself.The pH, specific gravity, solid content has been decreased from day 0 (5.12; 1.32; 28.25) to 14th day (4.35; 1.15; 22.81) respectively whereas phenolic content has been upgraded remarkably (0.040 to 0.165 g/100 mL) during the study. Kaempferol quantity was found to be decreased (0.186% to 0.0810%) after fermentation whereas caffeic acid quantity has been significantly increased in post fermented sample with respect to decoction (0.0168% to 0.0233%). The change brought in quantity of the phytochemicals, indicates the metabolic conversion during fermentation due to glycosylation or deglycosylation. The research limits the fermentation time for preparation of Drakshasava from 21 days to 8-9 days, saving time and money. The new optimized method adheres to the Ayurvedic principles and opens the scope for better quality industrial research and large scale production.
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