Studies on standardization and purification processes of VEERAM

Perumal, Raja lakshmi; R, Madhavan ; J, Muthukumar N; C, Savariraj Sagayam; P, Brindha

Abstract

In Siddha system of medicine Veeram is one of the toxins among the sixty four known toxins. Geologically it is called Calomel. It is a very toxic material therapeutically, these arsenic based medicines are used in Siddha system. Natural substances of milk, tender coconut water, bitter guard and lemon juice are used to purify the veeram. This research work analyzed the raw veeram and products obtained after purification. Geochemical, physico-chemical analysis, instrumentation techniques of XRF, TG-DTA, FE-SEM, EDAX and particle size analyzer. Among physicochemical parameters total ash value was low. Loss on drying increased in the products in the various intermediate stages which due to the impact of plant agents used in the process. XRF results revealed mercury is present in major concentration. Raw veeram showed 77.14% of mercury. In the raw veeram particles observed were distributed within the range of 0.0920 µm–0.948 µm. FE-SEM analysis suggested that the bitter gourd treated veeram consisted of individual particles with a size ranging from 94 nm to 144 nm. Milk treated samples when subjected to analysis revealed increased particle size which may be attributed to aggregation. Lemon juice treated samples showed particle size in the range of 82 nm to 96 nm and in tender coconut range was 78 nm to 91 nm. In the EDAX raw and other samples showed peak for mercury and chloride. TG-DTA analysis showed that the raw veeram sample had a sublimation temperature of 220°C where as in other treated samples sublimation temperature was reduced compared to raw veeram. The from the stydy depict that these purification processes forms new organic substances and transformation of the starting toxic metal. These processes have an important role in the formation of complexes and in altering toxic state to non-toxic state.

 


Keyword(s)

Geochemical, Instrumentation techniques, Physico-chemical analysis, Veeram

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