Parametric optimization of yield percent of chitosan extracted from fish scale (Labeo rohita) through central composite design approach

Datta, Deepshikha ; Mahto, Sumit ; Das, Bimal

Abstract

Fish scales are extensively found waste materials that take a lot of time to degrade, thereby causing environmental pollution. A sequence of chemical processes involving Demineralization, Deproteinization, and Deacetylation can be effectively used to extract chitosan from the waste fish scale. This study elaborates on the extraction of chitosan from Labeo rohita. The obtained chitosan is efficiently characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, XRF and proximate, analysis. The small particle size (3.3748 µm) and the high surface area (4.046 m2/g) of the produced cost-effective chitosan (0.26 USD/g) justified its use as an antimicrobial filler in producing food-grade plastic. The degree of deacetylation is found to be 52.11%. The biodegradability is explained by its high capacity for water binding (160%) and fat binding (457%). The individual effect of the essential parameters like deacetylation time, deacetylation temperature, and amount of NaOH added, influencing the yield percent,is studied using Central Composite Design approach of Response Surface Methodology. The influence of autolysis time and the ratio of fish scale to HCl acid is also visualized. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) study suggested that the obtained equation for the maximum yield percent is quadratic in nature and is significant for the process. The maximum yield percent of 29.63% is found at optimized conditions of 4.48% of NaOH content, 6.624 hrdeacetylation time and 58.2°C deacetylation temperature.


Keyword(s)

Chitosan, Demineralization, Deproteinization, Deacetylation, Biodegradability, Central composite design, Optimization


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